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360.Order to release on probation of good conduct or after admonition.-

(1) When any person not under twenty-one years of age is convicted of an offence punishable with fine only or with imprisonment for a term of seven years or less, or when any person under twenty-one years of age or any woman is convicted of an offence not punishable with death or imprisonment for life, and no previous conviction is proved against the offender, if it appears to the Court before which he is convicted, regard being had to the age, character or antecedents of the offender, and to the circumstances in which the offence was committed, that it is expedient that the offender should be released on probation of good conduct, the Court may, instead of sentencing him at once to any punishment, direct that he be released on his entering into a bond, with or without sureties, to appear and receive sentence when called upon during such period (not exceeding three years) as the Court may direct and in the meantime to keep the peace and be of good behavior:

Provided that where any first offender is convicted by a Magistrate of the second class not specially empowered by the High Court, and the Magistrate is of opinion that the powers conferred by this section should be exercised, he shall record his opinion to that effect, and submit the proceedings to a Magistrate of the first class, forwarding the accused to, or taking bail for his appearance before, such Magistrate, who shall dispose of the case in the manner provided by sub-section (2).

(2) Where proceedings are submitted to a Magistrate of the first class as provided by sub-section (1), such Magistrate may thereupon pass such sentence or make such order as he might have passed or made if the case had originally been heard by him, and, if he thinks further inquiry or additional evidence on any point to be necessary, he may make such inquiry or take such evidence himself or direct such inquiry or evidence to be made or taken.

(3) In any case in which a person is convicted of theft, theft in a building, dishonest misappropriation, cheating or any offence under the Indian Penal Code punishable with not more than two years’ imprisonment or any offence punishable with fine only and no previous conviction is proved against him, the Court before which he is so convicted may, if it thinks fit, having regard to the age, character, antecedents or physical or mental condition of the offender and to the trivial nature of the offence or any extenuating circumstances under which the offence was committed, instead of sentencing him to any punishment, release him after due admonition.

(4) An order under this section may be made by any Appellate Court or by the High Court or Court of Session when exercising its powers of revision.

(5) When an order has been made under this section in respect of any offender, the High Court or Court of Session may, on appeal when there is a right of appeal to such Court, or when exercising its powers of revision, set aside such order, and in lieu thereof pass sentence on such offender according to law:

Provided that the High Court or Court of Session shall not under the sub-section inflict a greater punishment than might have been inflicted by the Court by which the offender was convicted.

(6) The provisions of sections 121, 124 and 373 shall, so far as may be, apply in the case of sureties offered in pursuance of the provisions of this section.

(7) The Court, before directing the release of an offender under sub-section (1), shall be satisfied that an offender or his surety (if any) has a fixed place of abode or regular occupation in the place for which the Court acts or in which the offender is likely to live during the period named for the observance of the conditions.

(8) If the Court which convicted the offender, or a Court which could have dealt with the offender in respect of his original offence, is satisfied that the offender has failed to observe any of the conditions of his recognizance, it may issue a warrant for his apprehensions.

(9) An offender, when apprehended on any such warrant, shall be brought forthwith before the Court issuing the warrant, and such Court may either remand him in custody until the case is heard or admit him to bail with a sufficient surety conditioned on his appearing for sentence and such Court may, after hearing the case, pass sentence.

(10) Nothing in this section shall affect the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958, (20 of 1958) or the Children Act, 1960, (60 of 1960) or any other law for the time being in force for the treatment, training or rehabilitation of youthful offenders.

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Pashora Singh and Lahora Singh, two brothers were tried for offences under Sections 307/447/326/324/323 read with Section 34 of the Indian Penal Code for inflicting injuries on Amar Singh and Pal Singh on 27.8.1981. The Learned Trial Judge held that charges under Sections 307 and 326 were not established. The Trial Judge found both the accused guilty for the offences under Sections 447, 324 and 323 of the Indian Penal Code. As the accused were not previous convicts, they were granted the benefit of probation under Section 360 of the CrPC.

 

 

Supreme Court of India
Pashora Singh And Another vs State Of Punjab
on 9 October, 1992
Equivalent citations: AIR 1993 SC 1256, 1993 CriLJ 1053
Author: N Kasliwal
Bench: K Singh, N Kasliwal

ORDER

N.M. Kasliwal, J.

1. Special leave granted.

 

 

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344.Summary procedure for trial for giving false evidence.-

(1) If, at the time of delivery of any judgment or final order disposing of any judicial proceeding, a Court of Session or Magistrate of the first class expresses an opinion to the effect that any witness appearing in such proceeding had knowingly or willfully given false evidence or had fabricated false evidence with the intention that such evidence should be used in such proceeding, it or he may, if satisfied that it is necessary and expedient in the interest of justice that the witness should be tried summarily for giving or fabricating, as the case may be, false evidence, take cognizance of the offence and may, after giving the offender a reasonable opportunity of showing cause why he should not be punished for such offence, try such offender summarily and sentence him to imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months, or to fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

(2) In every such case the Court shall follow, as nearly as may be practicable, the procedure prescribed for summary trials.

(3) Nothing in this section shall affect the power of the Court to make a complaint under section 340 for the offence, where it does not choose to proceed under this Section.

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This section docs not give the option to the litigant but it gives the option to the Court, if the Court does not choose to proceed under Section 344, Criminal Procedure Code, then, the Court may proceed under Section 340Criminal Procedure Code, of course if the case is covered under Section 340Criminal Procedure Code. Sub-section (4) of Section 344, Criminal Procedure Code does not provide for appeal. It only provides for stay of the proceedings of the appeal or revision which is directed against the judgement or order in which the opinion referred.

Madhya Pradesh High Court
Deep Narayan Singh vs State Of Madhya Pradesh
on 29 September, 1994
Equivalent citations: 1995 (0) MPLJ 648
Author: D Chouhan
Bench: D Chouhan

 

(4) Where, after any action is initiated under sub-section (1), it is made to appear to the Court of Session or Magistrate of the first class that an appeal or an application for revision has been preferred or filed against the judgment or order in which the opinion referred to in that sub-section has been expressed, it or he shall stay further proceedings of the trial until the disposal of the appeal or the application for revision, as the case may be, and thereupon the further proceedings of the trial shall abide by the results of the appeal or application for revision

315.Accused person to be competent witness.-

(1) Any person accused of an offence before a Criminal Court shall be a competent witness for the defense and may give evidence on oath in disproof of the charges made against him or any person charged together with him at the same trial:

Provided that-

(a) he shall not be called as a witness except on his own request in writing;

(b) his failure to give evidence shall not be made the subject of any comment by any of the parties or the Court or give rise to any presumption against himself or any person charged together with him at the same trial

(2) Any person against whom proceedings are instituted in any Criminal Court under section 98, or section 107, or section 108, or section 109, or section 110, or under Chapter IX or under Part B, Part C or Part D of Chapter X, may offer himself as a witness in such proceedings:

Provided that in proceedings under section 108, section 109 or section 110, the failure of such person to give evidence shall not be made the subject or any comment by any of the parties or the Court or give rise to any presumption against him or any other person proceeded against together with him at the same inquiry

281.Record of examination of accused.-

(1) Whenever the accused is examined by a Metropolitan Magistrate, the Magistrate shall make a memorandum of the substance of the examination of the accused in the language of the Court and such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

(2) Whenever, the accused is examined by any Magistrate other than a Metropolitan Magistrate, or by a Court of Session, the whole of such examination, including every question put to him and every answer given by him, shall be recorded in full by the presiding Judge or Magistrate himself or where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf.

(3) The record shall, if practicable, be in the language in which the accused is examined or, if that is not practicable, in the language of the Court.

(4) The record shall be shown or read to the accused, or, if he does not understand the language in which it is written, shall be interpreted to him in a language which he understands, and he shall be at liberty to explain or add to his answers.

(5) It shall thereafter be signed by the accused and by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, who shall certify under his own hand that the examination was taken in his presence and hearing and that the record contains a full and true account of the statement made by the accused.

(6) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to apply to the examination of an accused person in the course of a summary trial.

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under Section 281 CrP.C. or under Section 313CrP.C. is not the evidence of the accused and it cannot be read as part of evidence. The accused has an option to examine himself as a witness. Where the accused does not examine

himself as a witness, his statement under Section 281 CrP.C. or 313 CrP.C. cannot be read as evidence of the accused and it has to be looked into only as an explanation of the incriminating circumstance and not as evidence. There is no presumption of law that explanation given by the accused was truthful.

 

* IN THE HIGH COURT OF DELHI AT NEW DELHI

V.S.Yadav vs Reena

Date of Reserve: 13th September, 2010

Date of Order: 21st September, 2010

+CRL. A. NO.1136 OF 2010,

 

 

279.Interpretation of evidence to accused or his pleader.-

(1) Whenever any evidence is given in a language not understood by the accused, and he is present in Court in person, it shall be interpreted to him in open Court in a language understood by him.

(2) If he appears by pleader and the evidence is given in a language other than the language of the Court, and not understood by the pleader, it shall be interpreted to such pleader in that language.

(3) When documents are put for the purpose of formal proof, it shall be in the discretion of the Court to interpret as much thereof as appears necessary

273.Evidence to be taken in presence of accused.-

Except as otherwise expressly provided, all evidence taken in the course of the trial or other proceeding shall be taken in the presence of the accused, or, when his personal attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of his pleader.

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Section 273 provides for dispensation from personal attendance. In such cases evidence can be recorded in the presence of the pleader. The presence of the pleader is thus deemed to be presence of the Accused. Thus Section 273 contemplates constructive presence. This shows that actual physical presence is not a must. This indicates that the term “presence”, as used in thisSection, is not used in the sense of actual physical presence. A plain reading of Section 273 does not support.

Supreme Court of India.

The State Of Maharashtra vs Dr. Praful B. Desai
 on 1 April, 2003
Author: Variava
Bench: S Variava, B Agrawal

CASE NO.:

Appeal (crl.) 476 of 2003

Appeal (crl.) 477 of 2003

PETITIONER:

The State of Maharashtra

257.Withdrawal of complaint.-

If a complainant, at any time before a final order is passed in any case under this Chapter, satisfies the Magistrate that there are sufficient grounds for permitting him to withdraw his complaint against the accused, or if there be more than one accused, against all or any of them, the Magistrate may permit him to withdraw the same, and shall thereupon acquit the accused against whom the complaint is so withdrawn.

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Section 257 Cr.P.C. reads as follows:-

"257. Withdrawal of complaint.- If a complainant, at any time before a final order is passed in any case under this Chapter, satisfies the Magistrate that there are sufficient grounds for permitting him to withdraw his complaint against the accused, or if there be more than one accused, against all or any of them, the Magistrate may permit him to withdraw the same, and shall thereupon acquit the accused against whom the complaint is so withdrawn."

As per Section 257 Cr.P.C., the leaned Magistrate permits for withdrawal of the complaint then as a result of it, the accused is acquitted. Once the accused is acquitted, Section 300 Cr.P.C. stands as a bar to try the accused once again.

MADRAS HIGH COURT.

N.Palanivelu vs State Rep. By on 28 July, 2011

DATED:28.07.2011

CORAM

THE HON’BLE MR.JUSTICE T.SUDANTHIRAM

CRL.O.P.No.15428 of 2010

and

M.P.No.1 of 2010

N.Palanivelu .. Petitioner/A-4

.. Vs ..

State Rep. by

The Forest Range Officer,